F/X On-line Newsletter - Digest
November, December 1997
Items removed from the on-line Newsletter web pages during
the fourth quarter of 1997.
NOTE: Links on
destination sites are often changed. We provide the
digest pages for archival purposes and the links to external
sites were working when the material was originally published
but may no longer be working.
New products and services of interest to
lasersts. Submit your new product information and images in .gif or .jpg
format to our E-mail or contact us.
Laser Updates ColorPro I
Specifications at a New Low Price
FREMONT, Calif., August 11, 1997 -- Lexel Laser of
Fremont, CA today announced the release of its improved 1Watt mixed gas
system designed to run on single or three phase power. The reduction in size
and energy consumption translates into a portable, less expensive unit for
full colour scanning.
Engineering improvements include a compact, light weight switching power
supply, beam divergence under 2.0 mrad, optional air cooling and variable
magnet field adjust for custom tuned colour balance.
"One Watt of power and low divergence makes the redesigned ColorPro I
ideal for AO shows, and the new low price gives our customers a reliable
alternative to low-powered air cooled." said Mike Baker, program
The Colour Pro I is compatible with industry standards and is available
within 4 weeks of order. System Integrator pricing and detailed technical
information are available through Lexel directly at 1.800.527.3795, or email@example.com
PUBLISHES GUIDE TO MEDICAL LASER SAFETY
ORLANDO, Florida: The Laser Institute of America announces
the publishing of the first edition of the LIA's Guide to Medical laser
Edited by Stephen Trokel, MD, the guide provides an overview
for the 1996 ANSI Z136.3 Safe Use Of Lasers in Health care Facilities.
Written in an easily understandable style, the guide is an excellent tool
for training health care personnel. The guide covers medical laser safety,
control measures, beam and non-beam hazards, laser-tissue interaction and
patient education. The guide also includes easy to understand tables and
diagrams. Prices at $15.99 US$ per copy, ($10,00 US$ for members of the LIA),
the guide is an inexpensive and essential component to any medical laser
The guide is posted on the LIA website at http://www.laserinstitute.org
INFO: Laser Institute of America,
12424 Research Parkway, Suite 125, Orlando, Florida, USA. 32826. Tel:
800-32-laser or 407-380-1533
CONTROLLER FROM LASER STUDIO
LASER STUDIO can now provide a professional front end
(control Unit) for PANGOLIN USERS. These units are based on our highly
renowned control systems being Magnum 'Q', Merlin 'Q' and the
FX-Series, all offering a host of facilities and a powerful control
environment. Existing PANGOLIN users will know that PANGOLIN software is an
extremely powerful software tool offering users a host of control
opportunities, however the system is PC based and can therefore be difficult
to use for a "live" show or when set-up time is limited.
LASER STUDIOS new front end controllers (and 'PFE
SOFTWARE) address these problems by giving the operator/programmer direct
control of PANGOLIN ShowTime through the following functions:
The LS control unit can scroll through the whole ShowTime
file. A single frame or number of frames can then be stored on 1 off the 180
'scene' keys. This is achieved by storing a "start frame/End frame"
direct from the control unit. We now call this a 'PFE EFFECT'.
For each 'PFE EFFECT' we now have control (Via
Speed of frame
For each 'PFE EFFECT' we can also add or change:
Colour (single or strobe)
Modulation (i.e. Ramp,roll,flip, single shot etc)
Each 'PFE EFFECT' can also be run forward or in reverse
with the operator having direct control of the speed.
With the LS control unit the operator can also
to 10 sequencers/chasers with 'PFE Effects' (up to 100 steps per
sequence). These can then be run as auto or audio chases
·In addition to the above, the LS control unit can load up to 10 'Pangolin shows' together with their
'PFE EFFECT' file (loading
takes about 1 second) and then each show can be started from the desk
(together with the soundtrack CD).
All of our controllers also have the following on-board external functions:
Time code control (E.G. from BSC etc)
Live recording and playback from a "DAT" or audio cassette.
S/L control (o dB)
PFE SOFTWARE gives you direct keyboard control of the desk
(and therefore PANGOLIN) from the screen (Mouse), The computer
keyboard (which simulates the controller keyboard) and desk. All keyboards
With this powerful and versatile system you can leave your
pangolin computer and monitor safely in its flight case and have a truly
interactive front end.
IMPORTANT NOTE: THIS PRODUCT CAN ONLY BE USED
WITH REGISTERED COPIES OF PANGOLIN SOFTWARE- Available from your Pangolin
happenings from around the world. If you would like your show or
installation information here, please E-mail to our E-mail
or contact us.
bans dangerous laser pointers
Department of Trade and Industry - Press Notice
1 Victoria Street, London SW1H 0ET, fax 0171-222 4382
28 October 1997
Consumer Affairs Minister, Nigel Griffiths, today acted swiftly and urged
Trading Standards Departments throughout the country to remove from sale
potentially dangerous laser pointers.
Mr. Griffiths' action follows an analysis by Herriot-Watt University which
found that laser pointers, tested over the last few days, failed safety
Mr. Griffiths said: "I have today urged Trading Standards Departments
to remove from sale to the general public all laser pointers not meeting
safety regulations. I am determined that potentially dangerous products such
as these laser pointers should be removed as quickly as possible."
"Let nobody be in any doubt that where I see breaches in consumer
safety legislation I will act promptly. As far as I am concerned consumer
safety is paramount." Mr Griffiths action follows this morning's
findings by Herriot-Watt University that some laser products could cause
Mr Griffiths' action follows a series of incidents involving the misuse of
Mr Griffiths said: "I am appalled by these recent incidents which have
been the result of misuse of laser pointers. My action today will help stop
a repeat of such incidents."
Class 1 and 2 laser pointers, as specified in the European and international
safety standards, continue to meet safety requirements and are still
available and safe for use by the general public.
1. Requests for the Herriot-Watt University Report, "Report on the
Optical Safety of Laser Pointers" should be directed to the University.
2. The Herriot-Watt University test results showed that 14 out of 17 models
of laser pointers failed.
3. The Minister has today taken action under the provisions of the General
Product Safety Regulations 1994. BS EN 60825 part 1: 1994 - Safety of Laser
Products (equipment classification, requirements and users guide) specifies
those laser (pointers) which should only be used by trained operators and
therefore not suitable for use by the general public.
Military Fires Laser at Satellite
Monday October 20 3:32 PM EDT - By Charles
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The U.S. military has fired a
powerful ground-based laser at an Air Force satellite in a test to measure
the vulnerability of American satellites to laser attack, the Defence
Department said on Monday.
Army Col. Richard Bridges, a Pentagon spokesman, said the results of
Friday's test -- in which the Army's "Miracl"
laser based at White Sands, New Mexico, was fired successfully at an ageing
satellite -- were still being determined.
Bridges said two powerful light beams, the first of less than one second
duration and the second about 10 seconds, were fired from the "Miracl"
laser at the orbiting satellite on Friday night, U.S. Mountain Daylight
"It was illuminated by the laser. The results are still being
studied," Bridges told Reuters of the first such firing of a U.S. laser
at a satellite.
Defence Secretary William Cohen on Oct. 2 approved a plan to use the
Mid-Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser (Miracl) at White Sands to illuminate
the satellite. The test had been delayed several times by cloudy weather
before Friday's shot.
The Pentagon has repeatedly said the "illumination" of the
satellite by potentially destructive beams of light would not violate any
treaties and was not an attempt to build a satellite killer weapon. Instead,
the department said, it was an attempt to measure whether a laser beam could
damage the satellite's ability to operate.
Miracl produces a beam of light six feet across using millions of watts from
burning fuel. An extended beam of light from the laser would be capable of
burning up a target.
The laser's target was the U.S. Air Force Miniature Sensor Technology
Integration program's third satellite, which according to the Pentagon has
exceeded its useful lifetime.
The U.S. Army has test fired lasers at missiles and other objects in test
flights before, but has never tested them against a satellite.
safety guidelines needed for laser shows
Representatives of the entertainment laser industry across
Europe are predicting that members of the public will be at risk if the
demand for laser displays to celebrate the Millennium outstrips the supply
of companies who know how to operate safely, according to an opinion piece
to be published in the June issue of the Institute of Physics' magazine Opto
& Laser Europe.
The UK's Health & Safety Executive recently issued a guidance note on
the safe operation of laser displays. The note says that operators must
assess and eliminate potential hazards. These include effects such as
`audience scanning' when the laser beam shines into people's faces above the
maximum permissible exposure.
The laser display industry in the UK has operated for 25
years without any recorded injury to a member of the public but Paul Tozer,
Technical Safety Officer of the recently formed Entertainment Laser
Association (ELA), points out that some countries ban effects such as
`audience scanning' which can drive the safety issue underground and
encourage `cowboy' operators.
The ELA wants agreement across Europe on training and codes
of practice for laser shows and advises that organisers of Millennium
celebrations should choose a member of the ELA to put on their laser
- The Antari 120 Fogger
by O. Stephen Roberts - firstname.lastname@example.org
Power consumption: 700 watts
Cost: 199.00 US plus tax, came out to 211.49 OTD
Size:350 X 130 X 160 mm
Weight:4.5 kg empty
Timer/Density Controller: nope
Remote: 50 foot cord with ready led and pushbutton terminated by 1/4"
Fluid Capacity: about 3/4 litre
comes with theatrical type swivel mounting bracket but no clamp.
I needed a fogger. I have no budget to speak of else I'd buy
a MDG.Went to the local magic/costume and clowning shop to buy a magazine.
Spotted this puppy on the shelf. Checked around in a few places, everywhere
Bought it. Brought it home and filled it up. Started stopwatch, ready light
came on in 6 minutes, book said should be in 4 minutes. Held down the
button, 2 minutes of steady fog, with NO smell of burnt glycol, almost
odourless dense white fog. thermostat clicked, ready light went out. 2
Minutes later, ready for another 2 minute burst. Ok, it sputters out a .25
sec burst of fog about every minute and a half at idle, but you wouldn't
notice it unless your right by the machine.
Is it what I'd use in a major install, heck no, but for a small
"endless tour" like mine, its good. Fogged up a oversize 2 car
garage with 12 foot ceilings to Mark Schweter Density (i.e. you cant see
your hand in front of your face) with one 25 second burst. When its not
emitting fog, its silent, when it is emitting fog it tends to make a
periodic sputtering noise and a loud hiss.
Amount of cold fluid spit out was barely detectable on the floor after 15
minutes of use. Tends to run on a little after a long burst, but so does
Mats F100 Professional model. Mechanical quality is good, heavy sheet metal
case well painted with epoxy paint. Pump and heater chamber are also quite
If you need a backup machine or a filler machine or a school gym machine,
this is it. Plus since the control interface is a simple 1/4" stereo
plug, its adaptable to a variety of control schemes, such as used Genie
garage door remotes etc.
Wins Export Award and appoints new GM
Laservision Wins National Export Award
In a glittering ceremony for the inaugural Business Star Awards at
Sydney's Darling Harbour Convention Centre last month officiated by The Hon.
Peter Reith, Federal Minister for Workplace Relations and Small Business,
Laservision Australia took honours winning the 1997 Business Stars Export
Award. Sponsored by GIO Insurance and supported by the Department of Science
Industry and Tourism, Laservision were selected from 9 finalists in the
export category and from 400 entries overall.
Commenting on Laservision's National Business Bulletin award Hon. Peter
Reith said, "I was delighted to present the award to Laservision
Australia as winner of the 1997 Business Stars Export Award and I sincerely
congratulate the company and all of its staff on what is a commendable
achievement." He continues, "Laservision has demonstrated its
ability to accept the challenge of exporting and will reap the benefits from
exporting a quality product." "The initiative shown by Laservision
will provide a commendable example to other businesses considering the
option of exporting."
Responding to the award Paul McCloskey Managing Director says, "The
recognition of the company in this way acknowledges a great year for the
Laservision team. I wish to congratulate them for their superb efforts in
achieving this high level of performance."
In addition to the company's growing international prominence as a
multi-million dollar themed attractions developer, Laservision have
continued to dominate the specialised corporate theatre, and special events
industry niche in Australia, from discrete corporate events to dynamic
The technology is Australian invented and developed. The company's
innovative control system is the computerised brain behind the razzle-dazzle
the audience enjoys. It synchronises laser animation and effects,
intelligent lighting, fountains, water screens, pyrotechnics, video &
film projections to digital surround sound. Holding several international
patents Laservision R&D continues to improve the company's technology,
maintaining their industry leading position.
Laservision's acclaimed business practice has attracted consistent
recognition and has been rewarded with a series of prestigious Australian
and International Business Awards. The company is numbered among Australia's
fastest growing companies having recorded a compound annual growth rate of
55% over the last five financial years and is recognised as an outstanding
Current holder of both the New South Wales and National "Australian
Small Business Entrepreneur of the Year Award", Laservision represented
Australia at the International Entrepreneurs Forum in the United States last
Over three consecutive years Laservision has gained recognition in the NSW
Small Business Awards, as a top "Service Enterprise" in 1994, a
leading "Manufacturing Enterprise" in 1995, and one of the states
top Enterprises with less than 50 employees this year. These awards were
given in recognition of achievement, innovation, excellence and dedication
to service and quality manufacturing.
Laservision was one of six finalists in the 1997 International Business Asia
Awards, nominated for "Best Use of Australian Technology in Asia".
The company was also a finalist in the 1996 NSW Institute of Export Awards.
Laservision's 20 Sydney employees drive this creative powerhouse and strive
to succeed at the cutting edge of the international Multi-Display-Media
entertainment industry. Annual turnover has grown to around $15 million AU$
with export business now contributing over 90%.
With Laservision's sights set on the Asia Pacific region and with a strategy
to increase the company's market share in this rapidly growing region, the
company has over the last 6 years successfully expanded into Thailand,
China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, India and Singapore.
Laservision recently participated in the Asian Amusements &
International Theme Parks Expo '97 at the World Trade Centre in Singapore.
This event is Asia's largest leisure and entertainment exhibition and the
only exhibition of its kind in Asia with 150 speciality companies
participating including 5 companies with a laser display background.
Laservision have extended its international marketing effort to the
Internet. The website address is http://www.laservision.com.au
Information is provided about their innovative technology, products and
services covering: Special Events Spectaculars; Laser Advertising; and the
Themed Attractions Industries world-wide.
General Manager Appointed by Laservision
Mr Brett Starkey, affectionately known as "Barney" in the
Attractions, Laser presentations and special events industry, has been
appointed General Manager of Laservision Australia after ten years with the
Commenting on Mr Starkey's appointment Managing Director and Laservision's
founder Paul McCloskey says, "The company has grown rapidly over the
past ten years, Brett's expertise has been a major contributor to that
growth. He has successfully produced thousands of Laservision presentations
in over 20 countries during his decade with the company. "Brett Starkey
has most recently been managing Laservision's largest and busiest production
department, a role in which he has demonstrated front line skills for rapid
and effective decision making and dedication to quality service. With
strategic restructuring under way, Brett now takes over company
administration, I will devote more time exploring and developing new
Industry Loses A Pioneer
Friday, 15 Aug 1997:
Fred Fenning, co-founder of Image Engineering Corp. and
inventor of the DV series of Digital Video storage devices (among
countless other ground-breaking products) has died in a private
His single engine craft suffered an engine failure from which he
could not recover. He was alone on an annual cross-country trip. His
body was found yesterday.
Two fisherman reported a plane going down in a large dammed area of
the Missouri river in South Dakota. This man-made lake is deep,
cold, and littered with trees along the bottom. The plane hit the
water and flipped over. The fishermen raced to the scene but by the
time they crossed the lake, there was no sign of wreckage not
Scott Blake initiated a search that involved several agencies and a
host of Fred's friends from the Grumman owners club. The report of
the downed plane was initially dismissed as being too far off his
flight plan. Eventually, it was determined that the story might be
relating to Fred, and a search of the lake was already underway.
Sonar failed to reveal the plane (it has still not been recovered)
Fred's body surfaced yesterday August 14th at 5PM. The current
assessment indicates that he had climbed out of the cockpit and
climbed aboard the belly of the aircraft. He removed some of his
clothing and started for shore as the plane sank, but the cold water
(45 deg. F) caused him to pass out and drown.
Date: Saturday, August 23rd
Address: St. Patricks Church, 9 Leroy St, Binghamton, N.Y.
People looking for a family address can send condolences to:
Dr. Frederick Fenning
55 Front St.
Binghamton, N.Y. 13905
Image Engineering Corp. extends it's deepest sympathy to Fred's
family and friends. He was a tremendous Entrepreneur, Engineer, and
Great Human Being. He will be missed terribly.
issues position paper on Lasers in Airspace
Tuesday, 21 Aug 1997: The International Laser Display Association [ILDA],
today issued a document entitled "International Laser Display
Association Position Statement Regarding Laser and Bright Light
Illuminations in Airspace". The issue has attracted a lot of attention
recently. The position paper reads as follows:
The International Laser Display Association (ILDA) is an association for
laser display manufacturers, laser artists, and laser display users.
Founded in 1986, it is a truly international organisation with the goals of
promoting professionalism, artistry, and safety in the laser display
The use of bright light projections such as lasers and spotlights in
airspace is a long-established method of architectural and entertainment
lighting. Spotlights became widely used commercially after World War
II, and outdoor lasers have been used since the mid-1970's. These
projections are commonly used to enhance the public's appreciation of many
events and permanent attractions: major sporting events, most theme parks,
movie premieres, corporate sales events, and festivals.
ILDA and its members are committed to the production of safe displays. We
believe that the responsibility for safety lies both with ourselves as
producers to use effective control measures, and with the aviation industry
to train pilots to react appropriately to any form of bright light
ILDA recognises the concern voiced by various pilot organisations about
incidents where light from lasers has illuminated cockpits. Since
1994, we have worked closely with the FAA (The Federal Aviation
Administration, a U. S. Government Agency) advisory group "SAE
G-10". We support the "consensus" standard which the G-10, a
panel of experts involved in both flight safety and laser safety have
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ILDA's POSITION
These are the principles that guide our recommendations:
- The current problem is one of too-bright lights in the cockpit.
Pilots have been distracted or even temporarily flash-blinded, with effects
like those from a camera flash. There is no harm to the pilots' eyes or
skin, but there may be the possibility of disorienting a pilot during
critical phases of flight (takeoff, landing or emergency procedures).
The problem is NOT one of unsafe light levels for eyes or skin of the pilot
or passengers. Light show lasers are relatively weak and cannot
harm eyes or skin beyond a few hundred yards from the laser. These lasers
are not the Hollywood "Death Rays" seen in the movies, but simply
bright sources of light. Further, stringent FDA (Food and Drug
Administration, a U. S. Government Agency) and FAA regulations require
detailed hazard analysis prior to operation to be sure that there is no
direct hazard to pilots or passengers. The physiological effect of a
laser display is comparable to all other forms of bright light projection.
Claims of injury to date have proven false, and are unsupported by the
wealth of laser safety research over the last 20 years.
- ILDA opposes anyone seeking to ban laser displays for specific
Laser displays have a legal right to share airspace with other commercial
users of airspace such as airlines, academic and scientific laser users,
spotlights, and bright architectural lighting.
A ban on laser displays will not solve the problem. There will still
be other laser (scientific) and spotlight sources in airspace.
Further, ILDA maintains that virtually any laser can be operated at any
location, provided that proper control measures are in place to avoid
aircraft exposure above the levels described in the FAA 7400.2.
- All bright light sources should be considered when setting policy.
It is irresponsible to focus only on legal, varianced laser displays, when
incidents have also come from non-display sources. Legal shows are subject
to stringent FDA and FAA rules (In the U. S.), so these are easy to monitor.
What is disturbing are the incidents which came from unknown sources, and
which cannot be effectively supervised. Even if all laser shows were
shut down, these incidents still would have occurred.
- It is impossible to completely control all laser and bright light
There is always the chance of an accidental -- or deliberate -- illumination
of an aircraft. Therefore, it is important that pilots be aware of what to
do if a flash of lightning, a spotlight, or a laser illuminates them.
Trained pilots can handle the problem; for example, helicopter pilots have
flown repeatedly into a laser beam for study purposes.
- The one action that will most increase safety is pilot education.
ILDA strongly recommends that the FAA should train pilots in the simple
techniques of handling a bright light illumination (These techniques
include: do not look at the source, do not panic, know that vision will
recover, go around if necessary until vision recovers). Training can be done
in a simulator during normal re-certification training, using a conventional
light source and only one or two exposures. The FAA must act responsibly and
provide proper "Recognise and Recover" training.
Alternatively, if FAA feels the problem does not justify the cost of using
the simulator, pilots should review a videotape as a condition of ongoing
education. The script for such a videotape has already been written and
endorsed by the SAE G-10 committee; it merely awaits production.
- ILDA encourages FDA and FAA to require use of a "Spotter's
Handbook" for laser display operators.
This would provide recommended practices for any laser site where aircraft
observers are used as a safety measure. Another possibility would be
to use ANSI Z136.6 "Safe Use of Lasers in an Outdoor Environment"
(currently in draft form). A recent Air Force study has found that
aircraft spotters are as reliable as a radar system, when used as a control
measure for distances of less than 3 miles.
- ILDA believes that certain types of lasers may need to be regulated
This includes YAG and copper-vapour lasers. These lasers' beams appear up to
three times brighter than more traditional argon lasers, due to their more
efficient colour. Therefore, pilots may be more affected than they would by
an equivalent amount of argon laser light.
- FAA should upgrade its "7400.2" reporting guidelines so that
they become rules, with the force of law. ILDA believes safety and fairness
dictate that "7400.2" be enforceable upon all laser (including
scientific use) and bright light users in airspace, not just laser display
- ILDA agrees with the National Transportation Safety Board that FAA
should conduct its long-planned simulator study. This will refine the
current light levels as embodied in the FAA 7400.2 guidelines.
- Finally, ILDA encourages all parties to place this issue in proper
Bright light hazards are minimal compared with more serious problems facing
the FAA and the aviation industry. There have been no accidents, injuries,
or damage due to bright lights. With basic pilot training and with the
improved procedures of FAA's 7400.2 guidelines, the situation can easily be
ILDA Board of Directors
Laser Beams in Airspace: A
Technical and Historical Perspective
Before 1995, the FAA guideline for laser displays allowed a laser beam to
be projected into navigable airspace if it was "eye safe", that
is, at or below power levels that could cause retinal damage: namely,
The underlying concept was this: the flying public should be protected from
biologically injurious exposure according to the very same safety criteria
used to protect the public on the ground.
From 1975- 1995, the FAA issued thousands of non-objection letters
permitting outdoor laser shows using laser light sources whose power
diminished to less than 2.6mW/cm2 (.0026W/cm2 ) beyond a few thousand feet
This regulation worked as intended. In fact, no eye or other injuries ever
occurred as a result of any laser beam projected into airspace. However,
during the last few years, there has been a proliferation of pilot-reported
incidents ranging from distraction to temporary flash-blindness when laser
beams have been projected directly into cockpits.
Now recognising the potential indirect hazard of laser beams in navigable
airspace namely, the temporary visual impairment of a pilot, however brief
the FAA working with the FDA issued new guidelines.
The new underlying concept is this: pilots should be protected from
temporarily impairing and even distracting laser beam projections.
Accordingly, the FAA now objects to laser projections that produce momentary
flash-blindness or even just "glare" in airspace proximate to
airports when pilots and their craft are in sensitive and critical flight
phases, respectively. Specifically, the power of laser projections
permitted in such airspace is now reduced from 2.6mW/cm2 (.0026W/cm2 )
to 100uW/cm2 (.0001 W/cm2) and 5uW/cm2 (.000005 W/cm2), respectively. To put
these numbers into a familiar perspective: sunlight incident on a cockpit
during daytime flight is approximately 1mW/cm2 (.001W/cm2).
These new and restrictive guidelines reduce the potential perceived
brightness from a laser beam (accidentally projected into a cockpit) to
brightness levels comparable to background light sources.
For more information please contact:
The International Laser
Display Association (ILDA)
Executive Director: Linda
4301 32nd Street West, Suite E-8,
Bradenton, Florida 34205, USA
Phone: (941) 758-6881 Fax: (941)
I was just wondering who did the lasers for the recent Intel MMX commercials
? Did you get a MMX Pentium out of it? <grin>
Just curious, Richard Gonsalves
Dear Dr. Divergence
The laser in the MMX commercial was a YAG. The effect was provided by Image
Engineering with Rick Campbell as the laser Producer. The distortions to the
beams were phase conflicts between the scanner refresh rate the Q-switched
laser and the exposure time of the film.
Now you Know
Chuck Collins - Freelance Laser Producer
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persons or companies named on the relevant page(s). Laser F/X does
NOT endorse or recommend any products/services and is NOT
responsible for the technical accuracy of the information
provided. We provide this information as a service to
laserists using the Backstage area.
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